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Polygonatum biflorum

Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliot

 

Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal

KingdomPlantaePlants, but not fungi, lichens, or algae
SubkingdomTracheobiontaVascular plants—plants with a “circulatory system” for delivering water and nutrients
DivisionMagnoliophytaFlowering plants, also known as angiosperms
ClassLiliopsidaMonocots (plants with a single seed leaf); includes the lily family
SubclassLiliidaeIncludes lilies, orchids, and many others
OrderAsparagalesA diverse group that includes asparagus
FamilyAsparagaceaeAgaves, asparagus, hyacinths, and others
GenusPolygonatumGreek for “with many knees,” referring to the swollen joints of stems
Speciesbiflorum“Two-flowered”

About plant names...

Smooth Solomon’s-seal, a member of the Lily family, is native to North America.

Identification: Plants reach up to 4' (1.2 m) in length, often bent to grow sideways, probably to capture as much light as possible. Yellow-green leaves appear alternately along the stem. They are oval, pointed at each end, up to 7" (18 cm) long by 2½" (7 cm) wide. Delicate greenish-white or yellowish-green bell-shaped flowers hang downward in groups of 1-5 flowers, each about ½" (1.3 cm) by ⅛" (5 mm).

 

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

5/17/2016 · Worcester Road Trails, Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, NH

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

6/4/2010 · Nashua River Rail Trail, Ayer, MA
≈ 3½ × 2½' (1.2 × 0.8 m)

Some similar species:
  You are here
Polygonatum biflorum

Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum ‘Variegatum’

Polygonatum humile
Common Name

Smooth Solomon’s-seal

Variegated Solomon’s Seal

Dwarf Solomon’s Seal
Plant Up to 24" (60 cm) long. Reaches 8-20" (20-50 cm). Up to 12" (30 cm) in height.
Flowers

 

Greenish-white, about ½" (1.3 cm) long by ⅛" (3.2 mm) around, bell-shaped, hanging in groups of 1-5.

 

White or greenish-white, like long bells, about ½" (1.3 cm) long, hanging downward, often in pairs. Whiter than P. biflorum..

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal) 


White, bell-shaped, about ¼" (8.3 mm) long, hanging singly from stem.
Leaves Up to 7" (18 cm) by 2½" (7 cm), oval, with pointed ends and parallel veins, yellow-green.

 

Oval, green fringed with white, 3-9" (7.6-22 cm) long.
Elliptical, green, 1-3" (2.5-7.6 cm) long.
Fruit ¼" (6.3 mm) blue berries. Dark blue to black, less than ¼" (6.3 mm) around. Shiny black, about ⅛" (3.2 mm) around.
Range/ Zones

USDA Zones: 3-9

USDA Zones: 4-8

USDA Zones: 5-8
Habitats Woods, prairies, in sandy, loamy soil Wooded areas, dappled shade, deep shade Full to partial shade in temperate climates
Type Wild Cultivar Wild

 

Online References:

Polygonatum biflorum on Southeastern Flora, the Southeastern U.S. Plant Identification Resource

Polygonatum biflorum at Illinois Wildflowers

Polygonatum biflorum on Missouriplants.com

Polygonatum biflorum on the Connecticut Botanical Society's Connecticut wildflowers site

Polygonatum biflorum at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

Polygonatum biflorum on Vascular Plants of the Gila Wilderness

Polygonatum biflorum at the Missouri Botanical Garden

Polygonatum biflorum at the University of Wisconsin's Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium

Polygonatum biflorum on Plants for a Future, a resource and information centre for edible and otherwise useful plants

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

9/3/2015 · Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, MA
≈ 9 × 6" (22 × 15 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

5/7/2010 · Tom and Susan’s, Pepperell, MA
≈ 9 × 6" (23 × 15 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

5/11/2010 · Tom and Susan’s, Pepperell, MA
≈ 8 × 5" (19 × 13 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

9/14/2010 · Garden in the Woods, Framingham, MA
≈ 9 × 6" (22 × 14 cm) ID is uncertain

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

Usually the flowers are in pairs or multiples. · 5/20/2014 · Beaver Brook Assn Conservation Lands, Rte. 130, Hollis, NH
≈ 9 × 6" (23 × 15 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

A stiff breeze makes it easier to see the flowers, which normally hang below the stem. You can also see the fine hairs that make the leaf undersides look whitish. · 5/17/2016 · Worcester Road Trails, Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, NH

Polygonatum biflorum description by Thomas H. Kent, last updated 16 Jun 2017.

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Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

7/7/2017 · By Jacquelyn Boyt

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

5/5/2016 · Wildflower Trail, Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, NH

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

5/15/1979 · VA · By Tim Chandler

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

Usually the flowers are in pairs or multiples. · 5/20/2014 · Beaver Brook Assn Conservation Lands, Rte. 130, Hollis, NH
≈ 8 × 5" (19 × 12 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

9/26/2010 · Brooks Woodland Preserve, Swift River Tract, Petersham, MA
≈ 9 × 6" (22 × 14 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

9/26/2010 · Brooks Woodland Preserve, Swift River Tract, Petersham, MA
≈ 8 × 5" (19 × 13 cm)

Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth Solomon’s-seal, Smooth Solomon's Seal, King Solomon’s-seal, Great Solomon’s Seal)

9/14/2010 · Garden in the Woods, Framingham, MA
≈ 12 × 8" (31 × 20 cm) ID is uncertain

Range: Zones 3-9:

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