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Tsuga canadensis

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

 

Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce

KingdomPlantaePlants, but not fungi, lichens, or algae (from Stearn’s Botanical Latin)
SubkingdomTracheobiontaVascular plants—plants with a “circulatory system” for delivering water and nutrients
DivisionConiferophytaConifers—cone-bearing trees (and a few shrubs)
ClassPinopsidaGymnosperms such as cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews
OrderPinalesCone-bearing plants: cedar, cypress, fir, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, yew, and others
FamilyPinaceaePine family: cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces
GenusTsugaFrom a Japanese name for their native hemlocks
Speciescanadensis“Of or referring to Canada”

About plant names...

Canada hemlock is native to eastern North America. Hemlocks live up to 800 years. Many cultivated varieties have been developed. These trees are under attack by hemlock woolly adelgids (Adelges tsugae), aphidlike insects first seen in North America in 1924. Although the insects themselves are black, they are nearly invisible; the infestation is visible from their white nests, as shown in some of the photos here.

Identification: Trees are pyramidal, 60-70' (18-21 m) high, with a maximum recorded height of 159' (48 m). They favor moist, well drained soils. The bark is initially smooth, becoming flaky and scaly over time. Eventually it forms wide flat ridges. Individual needles are flat, about ½" (1.3 cm) long, glossy green on top, silvery gray beneath. The needles feel soft and have blunt tips. Male flowers are small, round, and yellow. Female flowers are light green, appearing at branch tips. Both types of flowers are easy to miss. Cones are oval in shape, up to ¾" (1.9 cm) × ½" (1.3 cm).

References:

Sibley, David Allen, The Sibley Guide to Trees, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, p. 42

Online References:

Tsuga canadensis on The Gymnosperm Database

Tsuga canadensis at the Ohio State University PLANTFacts database

Tsuga canadensis at the USDA Forest Service's Silvics of North America site

Tsuga canadensis at the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation

Tsuga canadensis at the University of Connecticut Plant Database

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

8/9/2012 · Beaver Brook Assn Conservation Lands, Big Tree Trail, Hollis, NH
≈ 21 × 31" (52 × 78 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

10/7/2012 · Beaver Brook Assn Conservation Lands, Hollis, NH
≈ 6 × 4" (15 × 10 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

11/3/2011 · Pearl Hill State Park, Townsend, MA
≈ 10 × 7" (26 × 17 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

This hemlock is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). You can see two of the tiny black insects in this close-up. · 7/6/2012 · Littleton, MA

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

11/22/2011 · Pearl Hill State Park, Townsend, MA
≈ 6 × 4" (15 × 10 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

10/3/2010 · Dingmans Falls, Dingmans Ferry, Delaware Township, Pike County, PA

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

9/24/2010 · Nissitissit River Wildlife Management Area, Pepperell, MA
≈ 4 × 6" (10 × 15 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

9/24/2010 · Nissitissit River Wildlife Management Area, Pepperell, MA
≈ 6 × 9" (15 × 23 cm)

Tsuga canadensis description by Thomas H. Kent, last updated 14 May 2016.

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Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

8/20/2009 · Hayes Woods Nature Trail, Shirley St., Pepperell, MA
≈ 7 × 11" (18 × 27 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

6/15/2010 · Garden in the Woods, Framingham, MA
≈ 8 × 5" (19 × 13 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

4/27/2010 · Nashua River Rail Trail, Pepperell, MA
≈ 5 × 3½" (13 × 9.2 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

8/20/2009 · Hayes Woods Nature Trail, Shirley St., Pepperell, MA
≈ 8 × 12" (20 × 31 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

A fallen branch, with itsy-bitsy baby cones. · 5/15/2016 · Mt. Watatic, Ashby, MA

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

6/15/2010 · Garden in the Woods, Framingham, MA
≈ 14 × 9" (35 × 23 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

4/16/2016 · Jason’s Cutoff/Nichols Trail, Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, NH
≈ 7 × 5" (18 × 13 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

This hemlock is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). · 9/20/2014 · Littleton, MA

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

This hemlock is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (pronounced a-DEL-jid) (Adelges tsugae). · 5/14/2016 · Willard Brook State Park, Ashby, MA
≈ 2½ × 2½" (6.9 × 7.2 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

6/15/2010 · Garden in the Woods, Framingham, MA
≈ 14 × 9" (35 × 23 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

9/24/2010 · Nissitissit River Wildlife Management Area, Pepperell, MA
≈ 4½ × 7" (11 × 17 cm)

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

This hemlock is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). · 9/20/2014 · Littleton, MA

Tsuga canadensis (Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce)

4/22/2016 · Wildflower Trail, Beaver Brook Conservation Area, Hollis, NH
≈ 5 × 4½" (12 × 12 cm)

Range: Zones 3-7:

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